Travelers to Ukraine need not fear any specific threat or need vaccinations prior to their arrival, and while the country struggles to provide proper care for HIV/AIDS- and tuberculosis-infected persons (at the moment such persons receive little or no help), most other people will find the climate and general health of the population reassuring. Regarding crime, the rate of violent crime in Kiev is especially low, though as in any large city, travelers are encouraged to travel in groups late at night or in dimly lit residential areas. Safeguard valuables such as jewelry, cell phones or wallets on all modes of public transport as pickpocketing is common, and keep an eye on any belongings left hanging or lying unattended in restaurants as such thefts are quite common.
Regarding violent crime, while the overall crime rate in the city and country is low, attacks against people of color or obvious ethnic/racial background continue to go largely unpunished by the local militsia ("police"). Stories of race-related "swarm" attacks in the capital, though infrequent, have been recorded even in broad daylight in areas that experience heavy tourism traffic, such as the Andreevski Spusk. In general, avoid strolling around outlying suburbs at night and take care on Khreschatik and surrounding environs late in the evenings or when a large sporting or cultural event is taking place as Ukrainians can get very drunk and the local police are often apt to look away rather than deal with anything more than petty offenses. Keep an emergency contact phone number with you at all times in case the need arises to contact them for assistance in an emergency situation or with the police.
Finally, and perhaps most importantly, automobile accidents continue to increase in Ukraine with each passing day, killing tens of thousands of Ukrainians (including some foreigners) every year. The increasing number of vehicles on the road coupled with poor road conditions, lack of due care and attention on the part of drivers (the vast majority of Ukrainians do not wear seat belts) and lax enforcement of road traffic and safety rules by law enforcement bodies has made driving in Ukraine a major cause for concern. Road rage, alcohol consumption and other factors contribute in one way or another to the 10 fatal accidents that happen on Ukraine's roads each day! Follow a few simple rules and stay safe: buckle up; don't get into a cab if you do not feel safe; refrain from traveling at night or on poorly maintained roads; let someone know your planned itinerary if traveling to/from Kiev, and keep emergency numbers on hand in the event of the unthinkable.